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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all around the world and also have been found in Australia in tiny numbers. Recently they've become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and parts of the world, over the last ten decades. .
The main reason behind the increase is supposed to be due to insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are highly resilient to many of the commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world travel with bed bugs being dispersed in bags, shoes and clothing. Once obtained at large turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs could then be transported and introduced back to the houses of guests in their luggage.
Many hostels worldwide have now banned the usage of travellers own sleeping linen in shared accommodation for a safety precaution against this pest.
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In ancient infestations, bed bugs are found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. As the infestation spreads, the bugs proceed to any tiny crevices, which might be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Because of their colour, mature bed bugs can easily be spotted with the naked eye on white sheets and bedding, but rather difficult to see on brown wooden floors and other dark surfaces.
Heavily used hiding areas are evident from black or brown spots of blood excrement or spotting. There might be an offensive sweet odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour called buggy is similar to the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin cubes may be found near such places, in addition to living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This system of communication and also the release of alarm pheromones can make them quite difficult to deal with as bed bugs become alert and fast vacate the area being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs may propagate into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a host, bed bugs will nourish and therefore are very likely to haven in near proximity. In this case, new locations can quickly become infested with bed bugs in a short amount of time. .
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Different individuals have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of variables. Some people have little or no reaction to the bite. In others the sting site can get red and intensely itchy. This can occur during the course of the night or might take up to develop.
The red wheals may range from 2 cm to 5 cm in width with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock may possibly happen in individuals which are contagious, but this is very rare. .
Discomfort and loss of sleep is common from the ramifications of bed bugs. Bites may be found on many different places on the body. Another characteristic is the bites are great site in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. These rows are caused by the bed insect being disturbed during feeding and having to pierce the skin to feed again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but will also feed on other mammals and poultry if necessary. Even though they can carry diseases such as hepatitis they are not known to transfer these ailments to other individuals.
The survival of bed bug eggs is an issue. It is not uncommon for the live bed bugs amongst an infestation to be wholly eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the location once again. The eggs can also have an incubation period of up to fourteen days and could be deposited in hidden areas that are difficult to deal with. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are created more problematic due to the now smaller dimensions of the newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is detected, all adjoining chambers need to be inspected and treated if additionally affected.
This can be finished by the use of adhesive tape (if insect numbers are extremely small) to trap the insect. Vacuuming can also be recommended before chemical treatment as it eliminates all dust and debris from the site of this infestation making it easier for following chemical control to penetrate and in turn succeed.